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The ADDIE Model: Overview

Page history last edited by Previous User 9 years, 1 month ago

The ADDIE Model: A roadmap for building E-Learning Courses

 

 

Home | Abstract | Overview | Advantages | Disadvantages | Application of ADDIE | Examples | Conclusion | References | Multimedia

 

 

Overview

 

The ADDIE model is a systematic, step-by-step framework used by instructional designers, developers and trainers to ensure that course development and learning occur in an organized and structured way. The ADDIE model consists of five phases: (1) Analyze, (2) Design, (3) Development, (4) Implementation, and (5) Evaluation.

 

The ADDIE model was created in 1975 by the Center for Educational Technology at Florida State University for the U.S. Armed Forces. It was developed in response to the United States military need to find a way to create more effective training programs as their defense machinery became more sophisticated. This resulted in the development of the Instructional Systems Design which in turn, led to the design models that are in use today. You will often hear ADDIE referred to as Instructional Systems Design (ISD), Instructional Systems Design & Development (ISDD), Systems Approach to Training (SAT) or Instructional Design (ID).

 

Many of the instructional models in use today are variations of the original ADDIE model.  ADDIE stands for Analyze, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation; with each step or phase leading into the next and ongoing evaluation throughout all of the phases.

 

 

The five phases of the ADDIE are described as follows:

 

Analyze

During the analysis phase the learning problem, goals and objectives, and the audience's needs are identified. Existing knowledge and other relevant learner characteristics are also taken into consideration.  The learning environment, constraints, delivery options, and project timeline are also considered during the analysis phase.

 

These are some areas that are addressed during the analysis phase:


1.      Who is the target audience; What is the minimum/maximum current knowledge of the participant audience? What are their characteristics? What are their special needs?
2.      What knowledge and skill deficiencies currently exist?
3.      What are the tasks currently performed by the target audience and what new skill level is required following the training.
4.      What are the available delivery options and methods for transferring the new skills to the workplace?
5.      What is the instructional setting; e.g. classroom, on-the-job, self study, etc?
6.      How do these skills connect to the intended audience?
7.      What is the timeline for project completion?
8.      What are the program constraints? Technological, timing and duration.
9.      What is going to cost to provide the training?
10.    Create performance measures for the tasks to be trained.

 

Design

The design phase identifies the details of the training material to meet the specific needs of the target audience and achieve the learning objectives. During this phase, detailed storyboards and prototypes are often made, and the look and feel, graphic design, user-interface and content is also determined.

 

During the design phase, the following are some items that can be taken into account:

 

1.      The entry criteria or knowledge level the learner must demonstrate prior to training.
2.      Develop learning objectives for each task to be covered.
3.      Identify, structure and sequence the learning steps required to perform the task from easiest to most difficult.
4.      Based on the time allocated for the training, determine approximately how long it will take to deliver the program taking into consideration the instructor’s pace, course format and mode of delivery adjusting content and format accordingly.
5.      Develop participant assessments, program evaluation methodology, data collection method, and reporting formats that will be used to determine mastery of the tasks to be delivered.
6.      If possible, conduct mini knowledge presentations to validate the program will meet the designated learning requirements.

7.     Review implementation and evaluation costs, effort required and schedule.

 

Development

The development phase entails the actual creation (production) of the content and learning materials based on the design phase. By the end of this phase, the outline from the design will be transformed in the layout of the complete materials, including all text, graphics, and desktop publishing.

 

During this phase, the following activities can be taken into account:

 

1.      List activities that will help the target audience learn the task.
2.      Select the delivery method most appropriate to the learning group.
3.      Develop and produce program materials, aids and instructional courseware.
4.      Combine the courseware into a smoothly transitioning presentation.
5.      Validate the material and presentation to ensure it meets all goals and objectives.
6.      Develop trainer guides, learner guides, job aids and participant resources as necessary.
7.      Prepare coaches and mentors who will be assisting with the training.
8.      Book venue, accommodations and travel arrangements.
9.      Schedule participants. 

 

 

Implementation

During implementation, the plan is put into action and a procedure for training the learner and teacher is developed. Materials are delivered or distributed to the student group. After delivery, the effectiveness of the training materials is evaluated. A trial run is done and feedback is gathered from the learner during this phase. The planning for the implementation is very important, because even after all the analysis, design, and development the designer does, the instruction or project could fail due to poor implementation.

 

Depending on the size of the audience and amount of time and resources allocated to this endeavor, the following considerations should be taken into account the day before or the morning of presentation day.

 

1.      Set up and prepare venue.
2.      The learning environment, i.e. room, is set-up and prepared prior to the arrival of the learners.
3.      Student registration area set when necessary with registration materials, instruction books, etc.
4.      Hands on equipment, computers, tools, software, etc. are in place at each station or seat. Make sure that if using a learning application, an external link, web-site or Internet connection that it is live and functioning.
5.      Conduct training session. 

 

 

Evaluation

This phase consists of (1) formative and (2) summative evaluation. Formative evaluation is present in each stage of the ADDIE process, it involves gathering information during the early stages of the design process to find out if anything is not going as planned and making adjustments and removing obstacles to ensure a successful project. Summative evaluation consists of tests designed for criterion-related referenced items and providing opportunities for feedback from the users. Summative evaluations may measure knowledge transfer, learner outcomes, cost factors, and learner attitudes. During the evaluation phase, revisions are made as necessary.

 

Some or all of the following may be included during the evaluation phase:

 

1.      Was the information and/or message presented clear and understandable?
2.      Were the examples, illustrations, and demonstrations useful?
3.      Was the information presented personally relevant to the learner?
4.      Was the instruction interesting and, most importantly, motivating?
5.      How did the instruction impact the learner? If so, in what way. If not, why.
6.      What should be done differently?
7.      Of the material presented, what was most important to the learner? What was least important?

 

 



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